“Confronting All Ten Modalities of Maritime Terrorism” –Real Clear Defense

Taj Mahal Palace hotel, Mumbai Terrorist Attack,

Real Clear Defense has a post explaining ten modalities of maritime terrorism including some examples you may not be aware of. They are:

  1. An Attack on the Water from the Water
  2. An Attack on the Water from the Land
  3. An Attack on the Land from the Water
  4. A Precursor Attack in the Maritime Domain
  5. A Maritime Activity Related to Terrorist Financing
  6. Money Laundering of Terrorist Funds Through Maritime Activity
  7. Maritime Activity Related to Terrorist Logistics, Intelligence and Sustainment
  8. Cyberattacks by Terrorists Targeted at Maritime Activity
  9. Indirect Attacks on the Maritime Domain
  10. Hybrid Aggression

You may find the explanations interesting. The author summarizes,

“These ten modalities of maritime terrorism are not necessarily exhaustive, but they do provide a somewhat parsimonious taxonomy to assist security professionals in identifying and countering terrorist activity in the maritime domain. As a practical reality, most states have limited maritime law enforcement capacity, and the same agency is often tasked with countering everything from fishing without a license to oil spills to drug trafficking to piracy. Understanding how terrorists may be engaging in the maritime space can help sensitize analysts and operators to terrorist activity that may otherwise be obscured. At the same time, that understanding can help inform policy makers how to create a national-level approach that limits opportunities for terrorists to engage in any of the ten modalities. A state’s national security may be significantly impaired by any one of these terrorist activities, so every state should proactively strive to make itself as inhospitable as possible to all ten modalities of maritime terrorism.”

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