The Congressional Research Service has produced a very short over view of US Navy forces, it discusses the nature of both the Navy and Marine Corps as naval services, the aircraft that make up carrier air wings, naval nuclear weapons, and the Navy’s domestic and overseas home ports. Discussion of Navy and Marine aircraft is limited (covered here). There is no mention of the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard’s relationship with the Navy is covered here. Those interested in the USMC are directed to a different primer.
Its only two pages if you ignore the disclaimer, all pretty basic, but a good starting point if you have little prior knowledge of the way the Navy is organized. This is probably intended for the freshmen Congressmen expected in January.
Revision: Since this post was originally published, I have learned more about this particular form of briefing material. This lead to some changes above and a second post.