“Coast Guard is Refining FY 2021 Funding Pitch” –USNI

The Coast Guard Cutter Healy breaks ice around the Russian-flagged tanker Renda 250 miles south of Nome Jan. 6, 2012. The Healy is the Coast Guard’s only currently operating polar icebreaker. The vessels are transiting through ice up to five-feet thick in this area. The 370-foot tanker Renda will have to go through more than 300 miles of sea ice to get to Nome, a city of about 3,500 people on the western Alaska coastline that did not get its last pre-winter fuel delivery because of a massive storm. If the delivery of diesel fuel and unleaded gasoline is not made, the city likely will run short of fuel supplies before another barge delivery can be made in spring. (AP Photo/US Coast Guard – Petty Officer 1st Class Sara Francis) NY112

The US Naval Institute news service based on comments by Vice Commandant Charles Ray, during the 2020 Surface Navy Association Symposium, reports that the Coast Guard is putting more emphasis on addressing long standing short falls in shore-side facilities. They are also attempting to improve communications with particular reference to communications in the Arctic.

The Arctic comms issue definitely caught the eye of commenters. Don’t overlook the comments.

China Maritime Safety Agency to Build 10,700 Ton Cutter

This is not the ship discussed here, but is similar in size.   Photo from http://defence-blog.com/news/photos-charge-of-the-10000-ton-china-coast-guard-cutter.html  

South China Morning Post reports that the China Maritime Safety Administration has started work on their largest cutter ever, 10,700 tons. That is more than twice the size of the National Security Cutters and if they are using light displacement as is frequently done in Asia, it may be three times as large.

At 165 metres (540 feet) long and 20.6 metres wide, the vessel will weigh in at 10,700 tonnes and be large enough to accommodate several types of helicopters. According to earlier reports it is expected to be completed by September next year.

China’s Maritime Safety Agency was the only one of five Chinese Maritime agencies that did coast guard type work, that was not incorporated into the China Coast Guard. Unlike the China Coast Guard, the Maritime Safety Agency is still a civilian agency. They have a fairly large fleet and their vessels are unarmed.

The Japanese and South Koreans also build large cutters, but not this large.

“U.S. Navy, Air Force, Army conduct first real world test of Advanced Battle Management System” in NorthCom –Navy Recognition

Coast Guardsmen secure communications equipment to a line to bring it aboard USS Thomas Hudner (DDG 116) in the Gulf of Mexico Dec. 16, 2019. The Navy used that equipment during the first demonstration of the Advanced Battle Management System, operators across the Air Force, Army, Navy and industry tested multiple real-time data sharing tools and technology in a homeland defense-based scenario enacted by U.S. Northern Command and enabled by Air Force senior leaders at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., Dec. 16-18 (Picture source: U.S. Air Force 2nd Lt. Karissa Rodriguez)

There is good news and there is bad news.

NavyRecognition reports on an Homeland Defense exercise run by NorthCom using an Advanced Battle Management System.

A three-day-long exercise of the Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS) tested technology being developed to enable the military’s developing concept called Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2). When fully realized, senior leaders say JADC2 will be the backbone of operations and deterrence, allowing U.S. forces from all services as well as allies to orchestrate military operations across all domains, such as sea, land, air, space and cyber operations. The technology under development via ABMS enables this concept by simultaneously receiving, fusing and acting upon a vast array of data and information from each of these domains – all in an instant. The Air Force expects to receive around $185 million this fiscal year for this effort and intends to bolster these resources over the next five years, underscoring both its importance and potential.

It looks like this exercise was viewed primarily a counter to the possibility of a cruise missile attack. but interestingly it included an Army HIMARS (High Mobility Artillery Rocket System) unit equipped with a mobile surface to surface missile launcher. I presume in light of the nature of the exercise they would have been shooting at a maritime surface target.

The problem with this exercise is that other than delivering a piece of equipment as depicted in the photo above, it appears the Coast Guard played no part in the exercise. If there is a maritime surface threat to the United States, what is the most likely agent to detect it–the USCG. US Navy presence along the US Coast is extremely limited. Significant armed US Navy surface warships are based in the US in only five major port complexes, Pearl Harbor, Puget Sound, San Diego, Mayport, and Chesapeake Bay. Other than training and transit, they spend almost no time underway in US waters.

This looks like an attempt allow a coordinated response to an attack on the US using all available assets. The fact that this is, to say the least, difficult has lead me to believe the Coast Guard should be independently capable of responding to unconventional maritime threats. Even a common operational picture will not guarantee success. Defense assets are not always based within range for timely action. Most Air Force and Army pilots have no training in recognizing various ships types, so even if they arrive on scene, with appropriate ordnance, they may not know which ships is hostile. Giving Coast Guard units laser designators to identify the target and even point to where the target should be struck, might help. In any case, the Coast Guard needs to be included in access to any “Advanced Battle Management System” “Joint All Domain Command and Control” that is expected to defend the US.

“Guardian” (General Atomic MQ-9) –DmitryShulgin

GA-ASI Concludes Successful Series of MQ-9 Demonstrations in Greece

Dmitry Shulgin reports on the recent demonstration of the Maritime version of General Atomic’s MQ-9 Remotely Piloted Air System and its “Detect and Avoid” system held in Greece for European Defense Officials.

The Coast Guard has had a notional requirement for shore based Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) that goes back at least to the beginnings of the Deepwater program, two decades ago.

The most significant block to the wide spread use of UAS has been fear of mid air collisions with manned aircraft, because they could not “See and Avoid.” The General Atomic claims they have solved this problem with a Detect And Avoid (DAA) system.

The DAA system consists of an air-to-air radar integrated with Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). The DAA system enables safe flight of an MQ-9 in civil airspace, and can even detect air traffic that is not actively transmitting its position.

The Coast Guard has yet to procure a land based long duration UAS for Maritime Domain Awareness. Congress has been pushing the Coast Guard to pursue this capability. There have been some tentative steps, here and  here. It appears there are now off the shelf options.

“Currently GA-ASI aircraft systems support the Italian Air Force, the UK Royal Air Force, the French Air Force, and the Spanish Air Force. The Ministry of Defence for the Netherlands has selected MQ-9 for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, and the Government of Belgium has approved Belgian Defense to negotiate the acquisition of GA-ASI’s MQ-9B. In early December, the Australian Government announced selection of MQ-9B for the Australian Defence Force under Project Air 7003. GA-ASI RPAS are operated by the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Department of Homeland Security and NASA.”

The equipment included in the Guardian version of the MQ-9 is impressive, in addition to High-Definition/Full-Motion Video Optical and Infrared sensors, it includes Raytheon’s SeaVue multi-mode, maritime surface-search radar that is claimed to provide continuous tracking of maritime targets and correlation of Automatic Identification System (AIS) transmitters with radar detections and an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) mode that facilitates classification of vessels which are beyond optical sensor range.

For the demonstration, GA-ASI partnered with SES, a leading satellite communications (SATCOM) operator and managed services provider, with over 70 satellites in Geostationary Orbit (GEO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). SES provided the GEO satellite connectivity that enabled the MQ-9 to operate securely with a high capacity datalink, enabling real-time transmission of sensor data from the aircraft, and extending its effective operational range far beyond that of «line-of-sight» datalinks.

Meanwhile, the Navy is supposed to be deploying a fleet of MQ-4C Triton UAS to complement their new P-8 maritime patrol aircraft. Some will be based in Mayport, NAS Point Mugu, Hawaii, and Guam. If their “Board Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS)” system provides comprehensive coverage of the US EEZ and the drug transit zones, and if they share their information with the Coast Guard, maybe we don’t need our own assets, I have my doubts. If not, perhaps it is time for a Request for Proposal?

“Coast Guard releases final request for proposal for industry studies” –CG-9

OPC “Placemat”

The following is from the Acquisitions Directorate (CG-9) web site. Final responses are required by 31 Jan. 2020. Will see equal urgency in the award?

The Coast Guard released a final request for proposal (RFP) Jan. 10, 2020, for industry studies to support offshore patrol cutter (OPC) follow-on production. The RFP is available here.

This release follows the Industry Day event held Dec. 11, 2019, and the release of the draft RFP.

The deadline to submit responses to the final RFP is Jan. 31, 2020.

The Coast Guard plans to acquire 25 OPCs. The cutters will replace the 270-foot and 210-foot medium endurance cutters, which are becoming increasingly expensive to maintain and operate. The OPCs will bridge the capabilities of the national security cutters, which patrol the open ocean, and the fast response cutters, which serve closer to shore.

For more information: Offshore Patrol Cutter program page

Looking into this a little further, we find the notional delivery dates and construction schedule show one OPC delivered per year beginning in 2022, continuing through 2028 (#1-7), including the first four from Eastern. Then two per year 2029–2036 (#8-23), follow by one in 2037 and one in 2038. (Why the drop back in delivery rate at the end of the program is a bit hard to understand.)

“BATTLE OF THE BASTIONS” –War on the Rocks

Source: Image generated by Allison Lacey.

War on the Rocks has an interesting piece on the apparent development of a Bastions as both defensive and offensive positions.

Bastions are not a new development. World War II offers many examples of both success and failure. Singapore was a British bastion in WWII lost to the Japanese. One could say that Pearl Harbor was a bastion attacked December 7,1941. Malta was a bastion that was besieged for 29 months, from which the British attacked Axis supply lines to North Africa by submarine, surface ship, and aircraft.

The Japanese had Rebaul and Truk as well as many additional fortified island bases. As they pushed further from the homeland, the protected perimeter increased and consequently defenses became thinner and more porous. The US bypassed many of these, leaving them to “wither on the vine.” The months long battle between what became the US bastion at Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Southern Solomon Islands and the Japanese at Rebaul, New Britain was a good example of a battle between Bastions.

What has changed is the range of influence these bastions now have. Bastions in the South China Sea can now reach Guam with both ballistic missiles and air launched cruise missile.

The Coast Guard is already at two of locations sighted as existing or possible future bastions, Guam and Bahrain.

2020 Coast Guard Outlook

The crews of the Coast Guard Cutters Midgett (WMSL 757) and Kimball (WMSL 756) transit past Koko Head on Oahu, Hawaii, Aug. 16, 2019. The Kimball and Midgett are both homeported in Honolulu and two of the newest Coast Guard cutters to join the fleet. (U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Matthew West/Released)

The 2020 Coast Guard Outlook is on line. Can’t say I have read it. There are 127 pages, but looks like there may be some good stuff here.