“USCG Report: Small Cutters Prove They Can Patrol a Big Ocean” –Marine Link

We have noted before, that the Coast Guard is using Webber class WPCs more like Medium Endurance Cutters than like “Fast Response Cutters” here, here, and here. No where have their capabilities been pushed harder than in the 14th District in the Central and Western Pacific.

Increased illegal, unreported, unregulated (IUU) fishing in US and neighboring island EEZs, US obligations under the Compact of Free Association, and desire to avoid the destruction of fisheries resources essential to the properity of the region has resulted in a need to push these little ships into remote areas of the Pacific.

Marine Link has a report about the use of Webber class FRCs for long distance patrols in the Western Pacific. This is a particularly good report in that it records not only the successes, but also the limitations that worry the crews on these demanding deployments.

Food and Fuel are major concerns

The nominal range for the Webber class WPCs is 2500 nautical miles (nmi) at 14 knots. Attempting to stretch that range requires some compromises. Fuel margins have proven adequate, but they are thin and running engines at their most economical speed takes a toll. The need to minimize fuel consumption to make the great distancces requires running the engines at low RPM,

Sabatini said that the lower speed poses some other problems for the engines. “The diesels are really designed to operate at higher RPMs. When we were going for a week to ten days at a relatively slow speed, the carbon isn’t getting blown out. So, I was worried about that build up, and concerned about replacing injectors at a high rate than normal.”

It also means that almost any diversion, weather avoidance, or even adverse weather will cut into that margin.

The nominal endurance is five days. As built there is simply not enough storage space for food.

“We had extra freezers and reefers on the bridge and out of the mezzanine deck.”

I presume the mezzanine deck is the clear area between the bridge and the Mk38 gun mount that is marked for vertical replenishment. When I got to tour the Bailey Barco (WPC-1122) while it was enroute to Alaska, there was a lot of gear stowed on deck in that area. Apparently that worked, but I can imagine situations where the seas might wash some gear stowed there over the side.

I have also heard that the on-board laundery facilities are inadequate for prolonged patrols.

So far, most of these long Webber class deployments seem to have been accompanied by a larger cutter, but I got the impression from the post that that may be changing since the Webber class have proven their ability to make the voyages unsupported.

Medical Facilities

The lack of any onboard medical assistance is also worrysome. The report notes this as a danger to the crewmembers, but it also means the ship is not well equipped to provide medical assistance if required in a SAR case. The possible distance from shoreside medical facilities may also mean they would have to maintain a 10 knot economical speed rather than being able to go to speed to the nearest shore facility.

The Future

That the Webber class have proven capable of doing these missions comes as a pleasant surprise because they would not normally be our first choice for covering these great distances. What might we do to make these missions less challenging?

We might base some of the OPCs in the Hawaii or Guam. This may be possible specifically because the Webber class have proven capable of performing missions previously handled by Atlantic Area WMECs. That is probably desirable in the long term, but there is a more immediate solution. Base two, or preferably three, Webber class in American Samoa.

A base in Pago Pago, American Samoa would make unneccessary any routine transits longer than the nominal five day endurance and more than 2000 nmi that are now required to reach parts of the US EEZ and Western Pacific Island nations. A base in Pago Pago would put these ships within less than five days and less than 1500 nmi of Samoa, the Cook Islands, Tahiti, Fiji, Vanuatu (1260 nmi), Tarawa (1373 nmi) and New Caladonia (1416 nmi).

“US, Japan coast guards formally expand cooperation” –PAC AREA News Release / “Royal Navy and US Coast Guard to Forge Closer Bonds”

Ships from the U.S. Coast Guard and Japan Coast Guard conducted exercises near the Ogasawara Islands of Japan, Feb. 21, 2021. The U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Kimball and Japan Coast Guard Ship Akitsushima, two of the respective services’ newest and most capable vessels, operated alongside helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles to practice interdicting foreign vessels operating illegally inside Japanese waters. (U.S. Coast Guard photo courtesy of the Coast Guard Cutter Kimball/Released)

The Coast Guard has been busy increasing its international visibility. Below is a news release concerning increased cooperation with the Japanese Coast Guard that came out yesterday. Today, I see a SeaWaves report, also dated yesterday that,

“The Royal Navy and US Coast Guard have vowed to work more closely to fight crime and protect the planet. The two services already combine to stop drugs traffickers in the Caribbean and Middle East, assist each other with operations in the polar regions, run exchange programs for sailors and frequently work and train side-by-side around the globe.”

The new relationship with the Royal Navy includes expanded personnel postings that began back in 2014.

There are also plans to build on already successful exchange programs, which allows USCG engineers to work with the Royal Navy but will soon also allow pilots and aircrew to do the same. (emphasis applied–Chuck)

Perhaps we are not too far from exercising something like my proposed “Combined Maritime Security Task Force Pacific” with a US Coast Guard Cutter, a Japanese Coast Guard Cutter, and a Royal Navy River Class OPV working with navies and coast guards of SE Asia to protect their EEZ. Perhaps the Indian Coast Guard will join as well.

News Release

May 19, 2022
U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area

US, Japan coast guards formally expand cooperation

US, Japan coast guards formally expand cooperation US, Japan coast guards formally expand cooperation

Editors’ Note: Click on images to download high resolution version.

TOKYO — The United States and Japan coast guards formally expanded cooperative agreements and established a new perpetual operation during a ceremony Wednesday in Tokyo.

Vice Adm. Michael McAllister, commander of U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, and Vice Adm. Yoshio Seguchi, Japan Coast Guard vice commandant for operations, represented their respective services during the historic document signing ceremony and celebration at Japan Coast Guard Headquarters.

Although a memorandum of cooperation between the sea services has existed since 2010, strengthened relationships, increasing bilateral engagements and continued focus on maintaining a free and open Indo-Pacific necessitated expansion of the memorandum.

The new operation’s name, SAPPHIRE, is an acronym for Solid Alliance for Peace and Prosperity with Humanity and Integrity on the Rule of law based Engagement, and it honors the gem regarded as an emblem of integrity and affection found throughout the Indo-Pacific.

Operation Sapphire encompasses all the annual interactions between the Japan and U.S. coast guards, with the goal of increasing interactions over time.

To formalize the expanded cooperation, annexes were added to the existing memorandum of cooperation outlining Operation Sapphire to include standard operating procedures for combined operations, training and capacity building, and information sharing.

“We rely on our partners, allies, and like-minded nations to achieve our shared missions,” said McAllister. “As evidenced by this agreement, our relationship with the Japan Coast Guard is stronger than ever, and I am looking forward to many more decades of partnership and collaborative operations in the Indo-Pacific.”

“We will conduct smooth cooperation in the fields of joint operation, capacity building and information sharing by this agreement” said Seguchi. “Sapphire embodies the rule-of-law based engagement between the coast guards, and we will expand the principle of Free and Open Indo-Pacific to other nations.”

 

Australia Destroys Chinese and Indonesian F/Vs Caught Illegally Fishing

This isn’t new, the reports date from November 2021, here and here, but I had not heard about it previously.

The practice isn’t unique to Australia. Indonesia famously, routinely blows up fishing vessels caught fishing illegally in Indonesian waters and I found this 2015 report that Palau had burned four Vietnamese fishing vessels.

Thanks to Lee for bringing this to my attention. 

“Coast Guard begins multi-month fisheries enforcement operation with Bermuda” –News Release

Below is a 5th District news release concerning a new level of cooperation between the USCG and Bermuda to counter Illegal, Unreported, Unregulated (IUU) fishing. This certainly makes sense, since the Bermuda and the US share the same fish stocks. No matter where overfishing of that stock occurs, it hurts both US and Bermudian fishermen and our economies.

This seems to be the latest in a trend toward pooling resources, using the ship-rider program and Law Enforcement Detachments, to enforce norms for mutual benefit. Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory that lies 559 nautical miles (1,035 km) ESE of North Carolina. Britain, along with Canada, the Netherlands, and France, has been helping the USCG’s drug interdiction efforts.

(Bermuda is a great liberty port. I have found memories. Took my family back recently. I am sure the crews will enjoy Bermudian hospitality.)

The Bermuda Coast Guard was formed in February 2020.

News Release

U.S. Coast Guard 5th District Mid-Atlantic

Coast Guard begins multi-month fisheries enforcement operation with Bermuda

USCGC Angela McShan (WPC-1135)

PORTSMOUTH, Va. — U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Angela McShan (WPC-1135) is scheduled to arrive in Bermuda on April 6 as part of a multi-month fisheries enforcement operation in concert with the Bermuda Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Royal Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Coast Guard, and Bermuda Police Services. 

The cutter will be the first of four Coast Guard ships that will patrol seaward of the Bermuda Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which extends 230 miles from shore. The joint operation will expand upon the long-standing U.S.-Bermuda partnership, as well as emphasize protection of the environment and living marine resources in this region. 

The operation is a result of recent meetings between Bermuda’s Deputy Governor Alison Crocket, Deputy Premier Walter Roban, Permanent Secretary in Bermuda’s Ministry of Home Affairs Rozy Azhar, United States Consul General in Bermuda Karen Grissette and Rear Admiral Laura Dickey, the U.S. Coast Guard Fifth District Commander.  The professional exchange focused on increasing efforts to counter illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, a global issue recently detected in the Mid-Atlantic.  

“It was an honor to meet Rear Admiral Dickey and her staff, along with the U.S. Consul and her staff,” noted Deputy Premier Roban.  “This operation begins a new chapter of cooperation with the U.S. Government in supporting illegal, unreported fishing and other unacceptable activity in our waters.  All is as a result of a meeting held with the National Climate Advisor to U.S. President Biden, Gina McCarthy, at COP26 where we discussed matters important to Bermuda and the United States.  The willingness of the United States to support Bermuda in our effort to oversee our EEZ is in step with our centuries’ long relationship as neighbors.  My gratitude on behalf of the people of Bermuda extends to the U.S. Consul’s Office in Bermuda for facilitating these meetings and the support we will get from the United States Coast Guard.”

As the worldwide demand for fish as a protein source continues to grow, IUU fishing will have a profound impact on the security of all countries with a maritime boundary. Left unenforced, IUU fishing will threaten global geo-political security, undermine maritime governance, and impact a nation’s ability to achieve domestic food security.

“We’re excited to join with Bermuda to help detect and monitor potential IUU fishing in the region,” said Rear Admiral Dickey.  “As we each work to safeguard our respective Exclusive Economic Zones, we’re fortunate to build on our long-standing relationship to partner together in this effort to protect global fish stocks and promote adherence to international rules.”

“The United States is proud to partner with Bermuda to promote security and lawful conduct in the Atlantic region,” added U.S. Consul General Karen Grissette.  “Reinforcing the United States’ security partnership with Bermuda is one of my top priorities, so I am proud to welcome these U.S. Coast Guard cutters to advance our shared interests.  This important operation is one more tangible demonstration of the close security collaboration between Bermuda and the United States.”  

The Sentinel-class fast response cutter (WPC) is a key component of the Coast Guard’s offshore fleet that is capable of deploying independently to conduct missions that include port, waterways and coastal security, fishery patrols, search and rescue, and national defense.

“Develop an Indo-Pacific Fishing Security Apparatus to Compete with Illegal Chinese Fishing Fleets and Maritime Militia” -USNI

Chinese fishing vessel fleet (Photo: The Maritime Executive)

The US Naval Institute Blog has a short post recommending,

“…the United States…should spearhead the establishment of an Indo-Pacific Fishery Security Cooperation (IPFSC) that includes nations from Asia, South America and Africa. This organization would enable the member states to ensure territorial and economic integrity through diplomatic pressure, the sharing of intelligence and the sharing of security forces…The ultimate goal of the IPFSC would be to combat illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing throughout the Indo-Pacific region. As the majority infringer, the PRC would have a unified treaty organization economically and diplomatically pushing back against their illicit activities and enforcing international decisions such as the South China Seas Arbitration case… This would be somewhat similar to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization…except with an economic and law enforcement focus rather than a military focus.”

A law enforcement alliance would seem to be much easier to sell than a military one.

There are a few multi-national fisheries management organizations already, but to my knowledge none of them involve sharing of enforcement assets, though, I believe Australia, New Zealand, France, and the US have all aided smaller countries in fisheries enforcement.

The fishing fleets ravaging the worlds oceans are mobile and so large that when they move into an area, they overwhelm the local enforcement agencies. Like military organizations, you can be sure fishing fleets share information about the location and practices of their adversaries–the fisheries enforcement agencies. That is why enforcement agencies need to coordinate and share resources.

Earlier I proposed something like the sharing of security forces proposed here, “Combined Maritime Security Task Force, Pacific,” that could be implemented using an expanded multilateral “ship-rider” program–a multi-ship, multi-national, highly mobile law enforcement task force that can follow the fishing fleets from one nations EEZ to the next. The advantages of having third party witnesses when there is a contentious law enforcement action is undertaken should not be underestimated.

The afloat assets should be supported by shore based aviation and intelligence assets all in support of a multi-laterally developed fisheries management plan.

The USNI blog proposal refers to the Indo-Pacific, and my earlier post was in regard to the Western Pacific. Frankly, similar organizations could be organized in several areas, including the Gulf of Guinea, the South China Sea, the Western Pacific, the West coast of South America, and the Caribbean. It’s likely if we could form one such law enforcement alliance somewhere, and it worked, others would follow the example.

 

“B.C. Supreme Court orders a lifetime fishing ban for repeat offender Scott Steer” –Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Canada is taking Fisheries Enforcement seriously,

December 20, 2021 – Vancouver B.C.

On November 12, 2021, in the B.C. Supreme Court in Vancouver, Scott Stanley Matthew Steer — a repeat offender under Canada’s Fisheries Act — was handed a lifetime prohibition against fishing and a prohibition against being onboard a fishing vessel. This is the first life-time ban for a Pacific Region fisherman in over a decade.

These lifetime prohibitions are the result of an incident on March 1, 2020 in Vancouver Harbour when Mr. Steer was found illegally fishing for crab and was arrested, along with 2 crew members, when his vessel was boarded after a high speed pursuit.

In addition to the life-time bans, the Honourable Justice Peter H. Edelmann ordered Mr. Steer to six months in jail, minus time served, an additional three years’ probation, including 12 months under curfew, and 75 hours of community work. The Judge additionally banned him from involvement in the purchasing or sale of fish, including  brokering, for 5 years. And, he added a ban against Mr. Steer purchasing or selling a fishing vessel, and ordered the forfeiting of the aluminum vessel used in the illegal activity, with the approximate value of $50,000.

Mr. Steer, who has previously been handed extensive fishing bans by the Courts, is currently awaiting 2 outstanding trials in Nanaimo for alleged violations of the Fisheries Act.

One of the two crew members arrested with Mr. Steer, Sammy Williams, was also convicted for violations of the Fisheries Act on November 30, 2021 in Vancouver Court and will be sentenced in the new year. The other crew member, Cristopher Schill, pleaded guilty in a separate trial and will also be sentenced in early 2022.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada has a mandate to protect and conserve marine resources and to prosecute offenders under the Fisheries Act. It ensures and promotes compliance with the Act and other laws and regulations through a combination of land, air, and sea patrols, as well as education and awareness activities.

Quick facts

  • Illegal fishing undermines the effective management of Canada’s fisheries, and threatens the sustainability of local fishing resources. It can hurt the economic prospects of coastal communities, recreational and commercial industries, as well as diminish the traditional food sources of Indigenous people.
  • The commercial crab fishery accounts for almost one third of British Columbia’s wild shellfish products. Only crab caught under a licence may be purchased or sold, and it must be processed and inspected through a licensed plant to ensure it is safe for public consumption.
  • Anyone with information about suspected violations of Canada’s Fisheries Act and regulations can call the Fisheries and Oceans Canada toll-free violation reporting line at 1-800-465-4336, or e-mail the details to DFO.ORR-ONS.MPO@dfo-mpo.gc.ca.

Associated links

“Predicting illegal fishing activity is tip of the iceberg for mature AI technology” –BAE

BAE Systems technology applies machine learning analytics to automate low-level detection of activities of interest, such as fishing, from available data streams.

Below is a company press release, but it is an interesting one, with relevance to Coast Guard missions. The Obangame Express Exercise is one the Coast Guard has participated in, in the past. More info on the exercise here and here.


BAE Systems technology applies machine learning analytics to automate low-level detection of activities of interest, such as fishing, from available data streams.

The old “finding a needle in a haystack” analogy doesn’t begin to articulate the challenge associated with illegal fishing detection and identification. While a ship may be larger than a needle, the ocean is certainly larger than your biggest haystack. Add the need to not only find the ship, but determine its recent activities, anticipate future movements, and compare them with all other ships in the area — and do it in near real-time using open source data feeds.

At the Obangame Express event, which is the largest multinational maritime exercise in Western Africa, BAE Systems’ Multi-INT Analytics for Pattern Learning and Exploitation (MAPLE) as a Service, MaaS for short, was integrated with SeaVision, the U.S. Navy’s premier tool for unclassified interagency and coalition maritime data sharing. SeaVision is a maritime situational awareness tool that ingests maritime vessel position data from various government and commercial sources and simultaneously displays them on the same screen in a web browser.

“Military organizations use illegal fishing as a model application due to the unclassified nature of the available data,” said Neil Bomberger, chief scientist at BAE Systems’ FAST LabsTM research and development organization. “Successful detection of illegal fishing activity helps address a serious challenge and highlights another use case for our mature artificial intelligence technology.”

Giving depth to data

While manual analysis of individual vessel tracks is possible, it gets exponentially more challenging and time-consuming for large numbers of vessels. BAE Systems technology applies machine learning analytics to automate low-level detection of activities of interest, such as fishing, from available data streams. This enables analysts to quickly answer time-sensitive questions, prioritize manual data analysis activities, identify higher-level trends, and focus on decision-making instead of manual data analysis.

During the event, BAE Systems’ MaaS technology processed streaming data and automatically detected vessel behavior events that SeaVision displayed as an additional data layer to support user-friendly and timely analysis. The technology provides full visibility into the data to allow the users to check whether the detected behavior warrants further investigation. This helps build trust in the automation and supports additional analysis.

Decades in the making

BAE Systems’ FAST Labs maritime sensemaking capabilities are rooted in artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms. Backed by nearly two decades of development, their behavior recognition and pattern analysis capabilities continue to show significant utility in real-world environments.

The cloud-based artificial intelligence technology was matured via work on the Geospatial Cloud Analytics (GCA) program. In the months since the successful event, the FAST Labs organization has continued to develop and mature its autonomy portfolio. Elements of its autonomy technology have proven successful in multiple domains including air, land, and sea.

“This successful event delivers on the promise of mature artificial intelligence technology – easy to integrate, incorporating trust, and providing fast and actionable information in a real-world scenario,” continued Bomberger. “The event showcased how our artificial intelligence technology can be deployed in a cloud environment, integrated with a government tool, and used to address relevant maritime activities.”

“Coast Guard Booth Presentations at Sea Air Space 2021” –CG-9

22 meter saildrone Ocean Mapping UAS

The Acquisitions Directorate (CG-9) has provided media used in the Coast Guard’s presentation booths at Sea Air Space 2021, August 2 and 3. While certainly not a substitute for being there, they do provide insights into programs and concerns.

Coast Guard Booth Presentations at Sea Air Space 2021

  • Blue Technology Center of Expertise (BTCOE)
    Overview Blue Technology Center of Expertise presentation
    Ms. Jennifer Ibaven and Dr. Peter Vandeventer, BTCOE Program Managers, Office of Research, Development, Test & Evaluation and Innovation (CG-926)
    Tuesday, Aug. 3, 2021, 3-3:30p.m.
  • Coast Guard Detachment at DOD’s Defense Innovation Unit
    DIU & USCG Overview presentation
    Cmdr. Michael Nordhausen, Liaison Officer to Defense Innovation Unit
    Tuesday, Aug. 3, 2021, 4-4:30p.m.
  • Unmanned Systems
    U.S. Coast Guard Unmanned Systems presentation
    Capt. Thom Remmers, Assistant Commandant for Capabilities Unmanned Systems Cross-Functional Team Lead
    Monday, Aug. 2, 2021, 2:30-3p.m.
  • The Future of the Arctic
    U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Policy presentation
    Mr. Shannon Jenkins, Senior Arctic Policy Advisor
    Tuesday, Aug. 3, 2021, 11-11:30a.m.
  • Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
    U.S Coast Guard IUU Fishing Strategic Outlook presentation
    Cmdr. James Binniker, Office of Law Enforcement Policy, Living Marine Resources and Marine Protected Resources Enforcement Division
    Tuesday, Aug. 3, 2021, 2:30-3p.m.

“Taming Atalanta” –US Naval Institute, Naval History Magazine

Rum Runner Atalanta and Coast Guard Destroyer Ericsson (CG-5)

The US Naval Institute has a nice piece of Coast Guard history available from the latest Naval History magazine. It concerns a very fast, armored rum runner, and how it was ultimately brought to heal.

There is also a story in the same issue of Naval History about Alaska Patrol fisheries enforcement by USCGC Confidence in the 1970s, probably 1975-77. I had left Confidence in 1974.

USCGC Confidence (WMEC619) on Alaska Patrol. Photo by Commander Tom Martin, U.S. Coast Guard (Retired)

Two stories from the “Old Days.”

“Coast Guard Cutter Kimball conducts patrol to increase maritime presence and support in Pacific” –D14

USCGC Kimball (WMSL 756) U.S. Coast Guard photo by Chief Petty Officer Sara Muir

Below is a press release from District 14. This is a demonstration of the Coast Guard’s growing commitment to countering Illegal, Unregulated, and Unreported (IUU) fishing in the Western Pacific

News Release

U.S. Coast Guard 14th District Hawaii and the Pacific
Contact: 14th District Public Affairs
Office: (808) 535-3230
After Hours: HawaiiPacific@uscg.mil
14th District online newsroom

Coast Guard Cutter Kimball conducts patrol to increase maritime presence and support in Pacific

Editors’ Note: Click on images to download a high-resolution version.

HONOLULU — The Coast Guard Cutter Kimball (WMSL-756) concluded a successful two week expeditionary patrol in support of counter-illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries enforcement, furthering the United States’ commitment to regional security and partnerships.

As part of Operation Blue Pacific, the crew of the Kimball deployed in support of national security goals of stability and security throughout the Indo-Pacific; the crew of the Kimball remains prepared to utilize training in targeted and intelligence-driven enforcement actions as well as counter predatory irresponsible maritime behavior.

While patrolling approximately 3,600 miles in the Philippine Sea, the Kimball’s law enforcement team conducted its first ever at-sea boarding and expanded on the multilateral fisheries enforcement cooperations such as the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission.

The WCPFC is an international body made up of 43 nations and international organizations. Members agree to allow the 13 countries in the pact to board and record any potential violations on their nationally flagged vessels. The findings go to the WCPFC, who notifies the vessel’s flag state of the suspected infraction for further investigation.

“Our presence in the area shows our partners the Coast Guard’s enduring efforts to provide search and rescue response and oversight of important economic resources,” said Lt. Cmdr. Drew Cavanagh, operations officer for the Kimball. “The ongoing presence of a Coast Guard cutter in this part of the Pacific to assist in determining compliance with conservation management measures established by the WCPFC demonstrates the U.S. commitment to the region and our partners.”

The Coast Guard combats illegal fishing and other maritime threats across the Pacific to protect the United States and Pacific Island Countries resource security and sovereignty. Combating illegal fishing is part of promoting maritime governance and a rules-based international order that is essential to a free and open Oceania.

While on patrol, the Kimball was briefly diverted to assist in a search and rescue case in the Federated States of Micronesia where they utilized a small unmanned aircraft system, or sUAS. Use of sUAS expands maritime domain awareness and provides persistent airborne surveillance on maritime hazards, threats, and rescue operations.

“Training is also an important component of underway time and affects our readiness,” Lt. j. G. Joseph Fox, assistant combat systems officer for the Kimball. “The team conducted law enforcement training as well as disabled vessel towing training for our newest crewmembers.”

The Kimball is one of the newest national security cutters to be homeported in Honolulu. These technologically-advanced ships are 418 feet long, 54 feet wide and have a 4,600 long-ton displacement. They have a top speed in excess of 28 knots, a range of 12,000 nautical miles, endurance of up to 90 days and can accommodate a crew of up to 150.

Advanced command-and-control capabilities and an unmatched combination of range, speed and ability to operate in extreme weather enable these ships to confront national security threats, strengthen maritime governance, support economic prosperity, and promote individual sovereignty.